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Wednesday, 24 February 2016


Transfer Pricing Law In India

Increasing participation of multi-national groups in economic activities in the country has given rise to new and complex issues emerging from transactions entered into between two or more enterprises belonging to the same multi-national group. With a view to provide a detailed statutory framework which can lead to computation of reasonable, fair and equitable profits and tax in India, in the case of such multinational enterprises, the Finance Act, 2001 substituted section 92 with a new section and introduced new sections 92A to 92F in the Income-tax Act, relating to computation of income from an international transaction having regard to the arm's length price, meaning of associated enterprise, meaning of information and documents by persons entering into international transactions and definitions of certain expressions occurring in the said section.

Section 92: As substituted by the Finance Act, 2002 provides that any income arising from an international transaction or where the international transaction comprise of only an outgoing, the allowance for such expenses or interest arising from the international transaction shall be determined having regard to the arm's length price. The provisions, however, would not be applicable in a case where the application of arm's length price results in decrease in the overall tax incidence in India in respect of the parties involved in the international transaction.

Arm's length price: In accordance with internationally accepted principles, it has been provided that any income arising from an international transaction or an outgoing like expenses or interest from the international transaction between associated enterprises shall be computed having regard to the arm's length price, which is the price that would be charged in the transaction if it had been entered into by unrelated parties in similar conditions. The arm's length price shall be determined by one of the methods specified in Section 92C in the manner prescribed in Rules 10A to 10C that have been notified vide S.O. 808 E dated 21.8.2001.

Specified methods are as follows:

The taxpayer can select the most appropriate method to be applied to any given transaction, but such selection has to be made taking into account the factors prescribed in the Rules. With a view to allow a degree of flexibility in adopting an arm's length price the proviso to sub-section (2) of section 92C provides that where the most appropriate method results in more than one price, a price which differs from the arithmetical mean by an amount not exceeding five percent of such mean may be taken to be the arm's length price, at the option of the assessee.

Associated Enterprises: Section 92A provides meaning of the expression associated enterprises. The enterprises will be taken to be associated enterprises if one enterprise is controlled by the other, or both enterprises are controlled by a common third person. The concept of control adopted in the legislation extends not only to control through holding shares or voting power or the power to appoint the management of an enterprise, but also through debt, blood relationships, and control over various components of the business activity performed by the taxpayer such as control over raw materials, sales and intangibles.

International Transaction: Section 92B provides a broad definition of an international transaction, which is to be read with the definition of transactions given in section 92F. An international transaction is essentially a cross border transaction between associated enterprises in any sort of property, whether tangible or intangible, or in the provision of services, lending of money etc. At least one of the parties to the transaction must be a non-resident. The definition also covers a transaction between two non-residents where for example, one of them has a permanent establishment whose income is taxable in India.

Sub-section (2), of section 92B extends the scope of the definition of international transaction by providing that a transaction entered into with an unrelated person shall be deemed to be a transaction with an associated enterprise, if there exists a prior agreement in relation to the transaction between such other person and the associated enterprise, or the terms of the relevant transaction are determined by the associated enterprise.

An illustration of such a transaction could be where the assessee, being an enterprise resident in India, exports goods to an unrelated person abroad, and there is a separate arrangement or agreement between the unrelated person and an associated enterprise which influences the price at which the goods are exported. In such a case the transaction with the unrelated enterprise will also be subject to transfer pricing regulations.

Documentation: Section 92D provides that every person who has undertaken an international taxation shall keep and maintain such information and documents as specified by rules made by the Board. The Board has also been empowered to specify by rules the period for which the information and documents are required to be retained. The documentation has been prescribed under Rule 10D. Such documentation includes background information on the commercial environment in which the transaction has been entered into, and information regarding the international transaction entered into, the analysis carried out to select the most appropriate method and to identify comparable transactions, and the actual working out of the arm's length price of the transaction. The documentation should be available with the assessee by the specified date defined in section 92F and should be retained for a period of 8 years. During the course of any proceedings under the Act, an AO or Commissioner (Appeals) may require any person who has undertaken an international transaction to furnish any of the information and documents specified under the rule within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of notice issued in this regard, and such period may be extended by a further period not exceeding thirty days.

Further, Section 92E provides that every person who has entered into an international transaction during a previous year shall obtain a report from an accountant and furnish such report on or before the specified date in the prescribed form and manner. Rule 10E and form No. 3CEB have been notified in this regard. The accountants report only requires furnishing of factual information relating to the international transaction entered into, the arm' s length price determined by the assessee and the method applied in such determination. It also requires an opinion as to whether the prescribed documentation has been maintained.

Burden of Proof: The primary onus is on the taxpayer to determine an arm's length price in accordance with the rules, and to substantiate the same with the prescribed documentation: where such onus is discharged by the assessee and the data used for determining the arm's length price is reliable and correct there can be no intervention by the Assessing Officer (AO). This is made clear in sub-section (3) of section 92C which provides that the AO may intervene only if he is, on the basis of material or information or document in his possession of the opinion that the price charged in the international transaction has not been determined in accordance with the methods prescribed, or information and documents relating to the international transaction have not been kept and maintained by the assessee in accordance with the provisions of section 92D and the rules made there under, or the information or data used in computation of the arm's length price is not reliable or correct ; or the assessee has failed to furnish, within the specified time; any information or document which he was required to furnish by a notice issued under sub-section (3) of section 92D. If any one of such circumstances exists, the AO may reject the price adopted by the assessee and determine the arm's length price in accordance with the same rules. However, an opportunity has to be given to the assessee before determining such price. Thereafter, the AO may compute the total income on the basis of the arm's length price so determined by him under sub-section (4) of section 92C.

Section 92CA provides that where an assessee has entered into an international transaction in any previous year, the AO may, with the prior approval of the Commissioner, refer the computation of arm's length price in relation to the said international transaction to a Transfer Pricing Officer. The Transfer Pricing Officer, after giving the assessee an opportunity of being heard and after making enquiries, shall determine the arm's length price in relation to the international transaction in accordance with sub-section (3) of section 92C. The AO shall then compute the total income of the assessee under sub-section (4) of section 92C having regard to the arm's length price determined by the Transfer Pricing Officer.

The Transfer Pricing Officer means a Joint Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner/Assistant Commissioner authorized by the Board to perform functions of an AO specified in section 92C & 92D.

The first proviso to section 92 C(4) recognizes the commercial reality that even when a transfer pricing adjustment is made under that sub-section the amount represented by the adjustment would not actually have been received in India or would have actually gone out of the country. Therefore no deductions u/s 10A or 10B or under chapter VI-A shall be allowed in respect of the amount of adjustment.

The second proviso to section 92C(4) provides that where the total income of an enterprise is computed by the AO on the basis of the arm's length price as computed by him, the income of the other associated enterprise shall not be recomputed by reason of such determination of arm's length price in the case of the first mentioned enterprise, where the tax has been deducted or such tax was deductible, even if not actually deducted under the provision of chapter VIIB on the amount paid by the first enterprise to the other associate enterprise.

Penalties: Penalties have been provided as a disincentive for non-compliance with procedural requirements.
Explanation 7 to sub-section (1) of section 271 provides that where in the case of an assessee who has entered into an international transaction any amount is added or disallowed in computing the total income under sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 92, then, the amount so added or disallowed shall be deemed to represent income in respect of which particulars have been concealed or inaccurate particulars have been furnished. However, no penalty under this provision can be levied where the assessee proves to the satisfaction of the Assessing Officer (AO) or the Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) that the price charged or paid in such transaction has been determined in accordance with section 92 in good faith and with due diligence.
Section 271AA provides that if any person who has entered into an international transaction fails to keep and maintain any such information and documents as specified under section 92D, the AO or Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) may levy a penalty of a sum equal to 2% of the value of international transaction entered into by such person.
Section 271BA provides that if any person fails to furnish a report from an accountant as required by section 92E, the AO may levy a penalty of a sum of one lakh rupees.
Section 271G provides that if any person who has entered into an international transaction fails to furnish any information or documents as required under section 92D (3), the AO or CIT(A) may levy a penalty equal to 2% of the value of the international transaction.
Above mentioned penalties shall not be imposable if the assessee proves that there was reasonable cause for such failures.

Some Important Definitions: Section 92F defines the expressions " accountant arm's length price", "enterprise", "permanent establishment", "specified date" and "transaction" used in section 92,92A, 92B, 92C,92D and 92E. The definition of enterprise is broad and includes a permanent establishment (PE) even though a PE is not a separate legal entity. Consequently, transaction between a foreign enterprise and its PE, for example between the head office abroad and a branch in India, are also subject to these transfer-pricing regulations. Also the regulations would apply to transactions between foreign enterprise and a PE of another foreign enterprise. The term PE has been defined on the lines of the definition found in tax treaties entered into by India with other countries. PE includes a fixed place of business through which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

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